database mysql java数据分离

一个完整的mysql读写分离环境包括以下几个部分:

应用程序client
database proxy
database集群
在本次实战中,应用程序client基于c3p0连接后端的database proxy。database proxy负责管理client实际访问database的路由策略,采用开源框架amoeba。database集群采用mysql的master-slave的replication方案。整个环境的结构图如下所示:

实战步骤与详解

一.搭建mysql的master-slave环境

1)分别在host1(10.20.147.110)和host2(10.20.147.111)上安装mysql(5.0.45),具体安装方法可见官方文档

2)配置master

首先编辑/etc/my.cnf,添加以下配置:

log-bin=mysql-bin #slave会基于此log-bin来做replication
server-id=1 #master的标示
binlog-do-db = amoeba_study #用于master-slave的具体数据库

然后添加专门用于replication的用户:

mysql> GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO [email protected] IDENTIFIED BY ‘111111’;

重启mysql,使得配置生效:

/etc/init.d/mysqld restart

最后查看master状态:

3)配置slave

首先编辑/etc/my.cnf,添加以下配置:

server-id=2 #slave的标示

配置生效后,配置与master的连接:

mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO
-> MASTER_HOST=’10.20.147.110′,
-> MASTER_USER=’repl’,
-> MASTER_PASSWORD=’111111′,
-> MASTER_LOG_FILE=’mysql-bin.000003′,
-> MASTER_LOG_POS=161261;

其中MASTER_HOST是master机的ip,MASTER_USER和MASTER_PASSWORD就是我们刚才在master上添加的用户,MASTER_LOG_FILE和MASTER_LOG_POS对应与master status里的信息

最后启动slave:

mysql> start slave;

4)验证master-slave搭建生效

通过查看slave机的log(/var/log/mysqld.log):

100703 10:51:42 [Note] Slave I/O thread: connected to master ‘[email protected]:3306’,  replication started in log ‘mysql-bin.000003′ at position 161261

如看到以上信息则证明搭建成功,如果有问题也可通过此log找原因

二.搭建database proxy

此次实战中database proxy采用amoeba ,它的相关信息可以查阅官方文档,不在此详述

1)安装amoeba

下载amoeba(1.2.0-GA)后解压到本地(D:/openSource/amoeba-mysql-1.2.0-GA),即完成安装

2)配置amoeba

先配置proxy连接和与各后端mysql服务器连接信息(D:/openSource/amoeba-mysql-1.2.0-GA/conf/amoeba.xml):

<server>
<!– proxy server绑定的端口 –>
<property name=”port”>8066</property>

<!– proxy server绑定的IP –>
<!–
<property name=”ipAddress”>127.0.0.1</property>
–>
<!– proxy server net IO Read thread size –>
<property name=”readThreadPoolSize”>20</property>

<!– proxy server client process thread size –>
<property name=”clientSideThreadPoolSize”>30</property>

<!– mysql server data packet process thread size –>
<property name=”serverSideThreadPoolSize”>30</property>

<!– socket Send and receive BufferSize(unit:K)  –>
<property name=”netBufferSize”>128</property>

<!– Enable/disable TCP_NODELAY (disable/enable Nagle’s algorithm). –>
<property name=”tcpNoDelay”>true</property>

<!– 对外验证的用户名 –>
<property name=”user”>root</property>

<!– 对外验证的密码 –>
<property name=”password”>root</property>
</server>

以上是proxy提供给client的连接配置

<dbServerList>
<dbServer name=”server1″>
<!– PoolableObjectFactory实现类 –>
<factoryConfig>
<property name=”manager”>defaultManager</property>

<!– 真实mysql数据库端口 –>
<property name=”port”>3306</property>

<!– 真实mysql数据库IP –>
<property name=”ipAddress”>10.20.147.110</property>
<property name=”schema”>amoeba_study</property>

<!– 用于登陆mysql的用户名 –>
<property name=”user”>root</property>

<!– 用于登陆mysql的密码 –>
<property name=”password”></property>

</factoryConfig>

<!– ObjectPool实现类 –>
<poolConfig>
<property name=”maxActive”>200</property>
<property name=”maxIdle”>200</property>
<property name=”minIdle”>10</property>
<property name=”minEvictableIdleTimeMillis”>600000</property>
<property name=”timeBetweenEvictionRunsMillis”>600000</property>
<property name=”testOnBorrow”>true</property>
<property name=”testWhileIdle”>true</property>
</poolConfig>
</dbServer>
<dbServer name=”server2″>

<!– PoolableObjectFactory实现类 –>
<factoryConfig>
<property name=”manager”>defaultManager</property>

<!– 真实mysql数据库端口 –>
<property name=”port”>3306</property>

<!– 真实mysql数据库IP –>
<property name=”ipAddress”>10.20.147.111</property>
<property name=”schema”>amoeba_study</property>

<!– 用于登陆mysql的用户名 –>
<property name=”user”>root</property>

<!– 用于登陆mysql的密码 –>
<property name=”password”></property>

</factoryConfig>

<!– ObjectPool实现类 –>
<poolConfig>
<property name=”maxActive”>200</property>
<property name=”maxIdle”>200</property>
<property name=”minIdle”>10</property>
<property name=”minEvictableIdleTimeMillis”>600000</property>
<property name=”timeBetweenEvictionRunsMillis”>600000</property>
<property name=”testOnBorrow”>true</property>
<property name=”testWhileIdle”>true</property>
</poolConfig>
</dbServer>
</dbServerList>

以上是proxy与后端各mysql数据库服务器配置信息,具体配置见注释很明白了

最后配置读写分离策略:

<queryRouter>
<property name=”LRUMapSize”>1500</property>
<property name=”defaultPool”>server1</property>
<property name=”writePool”>server1</property>
<property name=”readPool”>server2</property>
<property name=”needParse”>true</property>
</queryRouter>

从以上配置不然发现,写操作路由到server1(master),读操作路由到server2(slave)

3)启动amoeba

在命令行里运行D:/openSource/amoeba-mysql-1.2.0-GA/amoeba.bat即可:

log4j:WARN log4j config load completed from file:D:/openSource/amoeba-mysql-1.2.0-GA/conf/log4j.xml
log4j:WARN ip access config load completed from file:D:/openSource/amoeba-mysql-1.2.0-GA/conf/access_list.conf
2010-07-03 09:55:33,821 INFO  net.ServerableConnectionManager – Server listening on 0.0.0.0/0.0.0.0:8066.
三.client端调用与测试

1)编写client调用程序

具体程序细节就不详述了,只是一个最普通的基于mysql driver的jdbc的数据库操作程序

2)配置数据库连接

本client基于c3p0,具体数据源配置如下:

<bean id=”dataSource”
destroy-method=”close”>
<property name=”driverClass” value=”com.mysql.jdbc.Driver” />
<property name=”jdbcUrl” value=”jdbc:mysql://localhost:8066/amoeba_study” />
<property name=”user” value=”root” />
<property name=”password” value=”root” />
<property name=”minPoolSize” value=”1″ />
<property name=”maxPoolSize” value=”1″ />
<property name=”maxIdleTime” value=”1800″ />
<property name=”acquireIncrement” value=”1″ />
<property name=”maxStatements” value=”0″ />
<property name=”initialPoolSize” value=”1″ />
<property name=”idleConnectionTestPeriod” value=”1800″ />
<property name=”acquireRetryAttempts” value=”6″ />
<property name=”acquireRetryDelay” value=”1000″ />
<property name=”breakAfterAcquireFailure” value=”false” />
<property name=”testConnectionOnCheckout” value=”true” />
<property name=”testConnectionOnCheckin” value=”false” />
</bean>

值得注意是,client端只需连到proxy,与实际的数据库没有任何关系,因此jdbcUrl、user、password配置都对应于amoeba暴露出来的配置信息

3)调用与测试

首先插入一条数据:insert into zone_by_id(id,name) values(20003,’name_20003′)

通过查看master机上的日志/var/lib/mysql/mysql_log.log:

100703 11:58:42       1 Query       set names latin1
1 Query       SET NAMES latin1
1 Query       SET character_set_results = NULL
1 Query       SHOW VARIABLES
1 Query       SHOW COLLATION
1 Query       SET autocommit=1
1 Query       SET sql_mode=’STRICT_TRANS_TABLES’
1 Query       SHOW VARIABLES LIKE ‘tx_isolation’
1 Query       SHOW FULL TABLES FROM `amoeba_study` LIKE ‘PROBABLYNOT’
1 Prepare     [1] insert into zone_by_id(id,name) values(?,?)
1 Prepare     [2] insert into zone_by_id(id,name) values(?,?)
1 Execute     [2] insert into zone_by_id(id,name) values(20003,’name_20003′)

得知写操作发生在master机上

通过查看slave机上的日志/var/lib/mysql/mysql_log.log:

100703 11:58:42       2 Query       insert into zone_by_id(id,name) values(20003,’name_20003′)

得知slave同步执行了这条语句

然后查一条数据:select t.name from zone_by_id t where t.id = 20003

通过查看slave机上的日志/var/lib/mysql/mysql_log.log:

100703 12:02:00      33 Query       set names latin1
33 Prepare     [1] select t.name from zone_by_id t where t.id = ?
33 Prepare     [2] select t.name from zone_by_id t where t.id = ?
33 Execute     [2] select t.name from zone_by_id t where t.id = 20003

得知读操作发生在slave机上

并且通过查看slave机上的日志/var/lib/mysql/mysql_log.log发现这条语句没在master上执行

通过以上验证得知简单的master-slave搭建和实战得以生效

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